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第一届中国水墨双年展-后文人艺术

After the literati art - the international famous artist huangyan (article)


 第一届中国水墨双年展(序)

The first session of the Chinese ink painting biennale (sequence)


中国艺星网/编发/海羽

Chinese art starnet/spread/sea feather


 

作者黄岩

The author huangyan

     一、文人

    A, the literati


    中国古代的文人绘画萌芽于隋唐,形成于两宋,明清达到高峰,在中国古代文人治理天下的系统中,文人绘画更多的承载了文人的精神,而不是简单的一个再现世界的视觉载体。

 

    Ancient Chinese literati painting in the bud of sui and tang dynasties, formed in the song dynasty, the Ming and qing dynasties to peak, in the ancient Chinese literati system of governance, bearing the spirit of the literati literati painting more, rather than simply a representation of the world's visual carrier.


    两宋以后,文人画和西方文艺复兴以后的绘画截然不同,西方的绘画走了一条视觉再现、光影呈现的写实绘画之路,其精神层面也只是宗教题材的插图,更多的是依附于文艺复兴那个时代,人在禁欲信仰中的一种挣扎和无奈,而早于文艺复兴五百年的中国大宋,一派歌舞升平,到处都是欲望,到处都是茶楼,到处都是酒馆,从张择端的《清明上河图》,就可见宋朝东京的浮华,这是人类历史上,进入封建社会以后的第一个平民化时代。宋完善了科举制度,诞生了近代意义上的第一个文官系统,诞生了近代意义上的大学,诞生了文人画,制造了像苏东坡这样的提倡文人绘画的、强调文人精神的一代宗师。

 

    Two, after the song dynasty literati paintings and western paintings distinct since the Renaissance, the western painting took a visual representation, light and shadow rendering of realistic painting, its spirit is religious subjects illustrations, more is dependent on the Renaissance era, people in ascetic faith a struggle and helpless, and early Renaissance DaSong of China in five hundred, is crowing, is full of desire, teahouse, everywhere is full of the tavern, from the later painting "on the qingming festival, is the song dynasty the glitz of Tokyo, this is the history of mankind, into the era of the feudal society after the first civilian. Song perfected the imperial examination system, the birth of the first civilian system of modern sense, was born the modern sense of the university, was born the literati paintings, created the advocate of literati painting, such as su dongpo scholar spirit generation guru.

 

    在我看来,宋朝东京汴梁和今天的美国纽约没有什么本质上的差别,都是典型的后现代社会,宋朝那是一个精英思想和平民意识结合的时代,也是文人思想和实用主义至上结合的时代。


    Capital of song dynasty in the song dynasty, in my opinion, Tokyo and New York of the United States today there is no essential difference between, are typical of postmodern society, the song dynasty is an era of elite and civilian consciousness combine, is an age of literary thoughts and pragmatism supremacy.


    文人在我看来,不是一种职业,而是一种生活方式,文人不是艺术家,也不是政客,他是艺术家和政客的多媒体。宋以后诞生的文人画,从一开始就将艺术定位在不是职业艺术家,而是一种把玩人生、游戏人生的一种境界。像苏东坡的这些文人他们把琴棋书画作为一个整体,而不是将它们单独的割裂开来,进而这种生活方式还直接的影响到自己的住宅、自己的园林,中国古代的文人都要在闹市中人营造一种所谓文人的优雅。于是,山野中的草、花进入闹市,成为梅兰竹菊,成为文人追求的一种品质,最后他们只单纯到用水墨来表现这些题材,故而,文人墨客名家辈出,大家的心性都指向自然,指向一种野生的状态,这种古代意义上的文人关怀,不是建立在说教基础上的,不是建立在今天的城市系统之上的,中国古代的绘画系统从一开始就抛弃再现层面,导入一种直观的顿悟,一种看破生死的顿悟,一种禅者的状态,一种大我、小我、无我的状态。

 

    Literati, in my opinion, is not a profession, but a way of life, the literati is not an artist, nor a politician, he is a multimedia artists and politicians. Born after the song dynasty literati paintings, right from the start will be located in art is not a professional artist, but a play, games, life is a kind of state of life. Such as su dongpo's literati their unique romance as a whole, rather than separate them to separate, and this way of life has direct impact to their homes, their own gardens, ancient Chinese literati are to build a kind of so-called literati in the downtown elegant. So the mountains in the grass, flowers into the city, become the chrysanthemum patterns, become a kind of quality, pursuit of literati in the end they simply to use ink painting to show these subjects, therefore, more famous letters, everyone's mind all point to the natural, pointing to a state of wild, scholars concern, this ancient sense is not based on lectures, not based on today's urban system, the ancient Chinese painting system from the beginning to abandon representation level, import an intuitive insight, an Epiphany he who sees through life and death, a zen state, a state of self, the ego, no me.


    陶渊明的“采菊东篱下,悠然见南山”,一种文人的自我安慰,并将简朴的生活方式上升为哲学,文人这种出自魏晋的狂放与时代变革,由少数精英掌握的文化艺术到宋以后演变成一种社会的生活方式,在今天看来,这种业余的艺术,这种以性情、以天人合一思想为依托的一种文人情怀,反而使中国古代的艺术达到了一种无法企及的高度,八大山人毕生装疯卖傻,但他的绘画、他的文人画直到今天对于西方意义上的现代绘画,还构成一种理论上的挑战,在宋以后的一千年,重提文人艺术,可以被看做中国将要摆脱西方欧洲中心主义艺术,而走中国自己艺术之路的方法论之一。

 

    Tao yuanming's "' tori, picking, a scholar of comfort, and simple way of life is to rise to the philosophy, that came in from weijin literati in the wild with the time change, held by a small number of elite culture and art to become a social way of life after the song dynasty, by today's standards, the amateur art, this character, which is based on harmony thought of a literati feelings, makes the Chinese ancient art reached a height, not eight mountain man lifelong fool on occasion but his paintings, he literati paintings until today for western sense of modern painting, also constitute a theoretical challenge, in one thousand, after the song dynasty so literati art, can be regarded as China is going to get rid of the western art of eurocentrism, and take the path of China's own art of one of the methodology.



    二、五四新文化运动

      Second, the may fourth new culture movement

 

    近现代意义的中国绘画和水墨实验的源头都直接指向五四新文化运动,鸦片战争以后,中国无法闭关锁国,传统意义上的文化和思想盛行了两千年之久,孔夫子的思想,老子的思想,当面对西方列强的炮舰政策时,显得软弱无力,传统意义上的这个天朝开始动摇,似乎一切理论和思想都得为社会服务,西方的炮舰让中国一批务实的知识分子开始现代意义的觉醒,这些知识分子成了西方现代主义拿来的棋手,传统成了人人喊打的过街老鼠,五四新文化运动正是在这一背景下发生的。


    The modern meaning of the source of Chinese painting and ink experiment directly point to the may fourth new culture movement, after the opium war, China cannot be closed, in the traditional sense of the culture and thought popular for two thousand years, the thought of Confucius, laozi's thought, when in the face of western powers gunboat policy, look weak, in the traditional sense of the China began to shake, seems to be all theory and ideas for the social service, western gunboats make China a number of practical intellectuals began to wake up in the modern sense, these intellectuals becoming western modernism brought players, gets a traditional became a dozen of rats, the may fourth new culture movement is in this background.


    那是中国国力到了崩溃边缘的一个时代,一代知识分子对传统丧失了信心,因为所有的改良似乎都是失败的,包括在封建帝制基础上建立现代工业运动的梦想。


    It is China's national strength to the brink of an era, a generation of intellectuals to the traditional lost confidence, because all the improvement seems to be a failure, including in the feudal monarchy modern industry established on the basis of movement of the dream.


    于是,五四新文化运动走向一个极端,西方的科学、民主包括艺术成为放任四海而皆准的真理,那是一个大时代,国家开始沸腾了,大家都向往革命,革自己的命,革传统的命,一夜之间,传统的精髓与糟粕都成为过眼黄花。那时的艺术家,向往西方,向往巴黎,向往东京,他们开始走出国门,聆听和学习大西洋彼岸来自工业革命的艺术

 

    Then, the may fourth new culture movement to the extreme, a western science, democracy, including art into allowing all truth, and that is a big time, countries began to boil, everyone is yearning for revolution, leather for their own life, traditional leather life, overnight, the traditional essence and dross flutter past. Then artists, western, Paris, Tokyo, they began to go abroad, listen and learn the art of the other side of the Atlantic from the industrial revolution.


    那时的上海聚集了一批海归派艺术家,他们大谈印象主义、野兽派、立体派、未来主义、超现实主义艺术运动,文人画正是在这些激进艺术家的艺术变革中消亡了。


    At that time, the Shanghai artists gathered a batch of ast, they talk about impressionism, fauvism, cubism, futurism and surrealism art movement, the art of literati paintings is the radical artists die change.


    随着满清帝国的灭亡,随着文人系统的灭亡,文人画也沦落为风尘中的街头艺术,文人的消亡和文人画的死亡既是时代的使然,又是时代的悲剧。中国的传统文化淹没在对于那个时代知识分子来说,更加紧急的民族救亡运动和民族解放运动中。于是,从法国回来的徐悲鸿,代表了五四新文化运动以后那时中国艺术的正统力量,林风眠代表了将传统和西方当代艺术结合的所谓的前卫的力量,总之五四新文化运动彻底的改变了中国艺术的版图,形成了现代意义上的传统与现代两大艺术阵营。


    With the destruction of the qing empire, with the destruction of the literati, literati paintings also descended into the dusty street art, the demise of the literati and the death of the literati paintings is era, is the tragedy of The Times. China's traditional culture under the for intellectuals at that time, the more urgent national national movement and national liberation movement. So, xu beihong returned from France, represented after the may fourth new culture movement was a legitimate power of Chinese art, Lin Fengmian represents the combination of traditional and western contemporary art of the power of the so-called avant-garde, anyhow the may fourth new culture movement thoroughly changed the Chinese art of landscape, formed in the modern sense of tradition and modern art.

 

 

    三、新中国

      Three, the new China

 

    从鸦片战争到1949年,中国在长达一百年的时间里经历了帝国不断没落又最后走向民族独立的这样的一个过程,中国在那一个时期的艺术也是晴雨表,不论是产生在富甲天下苏杭的扬州八怪,还是后来十里上海滩的海派艺术家吴昌硕,再到后来将民间艺术和文人画结合的北京胡同里的齐白石,他们都认证了中国这一百年水墨艺术的变迁。


    From the opium war to 1949, China has experienced the empire in the one hundred years of time constant decline and finally to such a process of national independence, in that a period of Chinese art is also a barometer, whether produced in the guilin yangzhou eight eccentrics of suzhou and hangzhou, or later miles the bund of Shanghai artists fostered numerous eminent people like wu changshuo, to the later combination of folk art with literati paintings of Beijing hutong qi baishi, they all certified the changes of Chinese ink painting for the past one hundred years.

 

    艺术和社会、政治有着千丝万缕的联系,在中国共产党领导下的中国革命,以新中国的建立给五四运动在社会学上画了一个圆满的句号。成千上万的农民、工人从传统意义上的被剥削者,成为当家作主的主人,1949年是一个转折点,那是一个大时代,中国气象万千,百业待兴,艺术从没有像那一时刻离平民百姓这么近,于是,传统又复活了,不过复活的不是文人画,而是传统的民间艺术,原来那些老百姓,美化生活而发明的各种艺术登不了大雅之堂,在1949年之后,都成为新中国艺术的重要组成部分,向民间学习,向人民学习,既是那个时代政治的需要,也是那个平民时代老百姓的需要,艺术家的需要。艺术再次变成健康的、活泼的、激动人心的、以教育为意义的,甚至是红光亮、高大全的。于是,传统的剪纸、刺绣、泥人,都成为新中国艺术家艺术滋养的源泉。


    Art and with social, political issues, in the Chinese revolution under the leadership of the communist party of China, with the establishment of new China to the may fourth movement in sociology drew a satisfactory full stop. Tens of thousands of farmers, workers from the traditional sense of the exploiters, become the master of masters, 1949 was a turning point, that is a big time, with China, spectacular newborn country, art never seem to have that moment is so close to ordinary people, so the traditional has revived, but not the resurrection of literati painting, but the traditional folk art, the original people, beautification life and invented all sorts of art on the hall of the elegance, after 1949, have become an important part of the new China's art, learn from the folk, learn from the people, both the need of the era of political, also is the need of the ordinary civilians era, the needs of the artist. Art once again become a healthy, active, exciting, with education as the meaning, even the red light, all tall. So, the traditional paper-cut, embroidery, clay figurine, have become the new artists art nourishing source.


   同时,全国建立的高等美术院校,像中央美院、鲁迅美院等一大批美术院校,将苏联的美术模式,甚至是法国的美术模式,系统的普及给这些科班出身的美术学院的学生,一方面,是来自西方的正规美术教育,一方面是来自民间底层的艺术滋养,在三十年的时间里,制造了中国的所谓的流行艺术、波普艺术、大众艺术。


    At the same time, a national fine arts colleges, such as the central beautiful courtyard, a large number of lu xun academy of fine art academy, will be the art of the Soviet union pattern, and even French art mode, the popularity of system to the trained students of the academy of fine arts, on the one hand, is from the west formal art education, on the one hand, came from the folk art of nourishing, bottom in 30 years, has made the Chinese pop art and pop art, public art.


   它有别于同一时期的美国艺术、美国的波普艺术、美国的流行艺术,这一时期,美国的波普艺术它只是吸收了一些大众传播符号,还停留在艺术史的精英层面,美国的这些艺术运动是由画廊、经纪人和艺术家合谋发生的,此时中国的流行艺术是建立在群众艺术馆,文化宫基础上的,它是一种艺术辅导体制下的流行艺术,在体制上是以美院毕业学生为老师,广招工厂、车间里的美术积极分子,从事绘画学习及绘画创作,从体制上这是一种典型的业余美术状态,群众美术状态,以那时每一个城市、每一个区都有文化馆这一分布来统计,全国的美术爱好者,或者非职业艺术家就有上百万人,因此在文革中,宣传画也好、海报也好,招贴也好,我们能看到那时中国流行的艺术是如何被释放的。



    It is different from the same period of American art, American pop art and pop art in the United States, during this period, the American pop art, it is only to absorb some of the mass communication symbols, still stay on the elite level of art, the art movement of the United States is conspiring to happen by galleries, brokers and artist, at this time the Chinese pop art is based on the public arts, on the basis of the hall, it is an art of pop art under the tutoring system, on the system is based on academy graduate student teacher, recruiting art activists in the factory, workshop, engaged in painting and painting creation, learning from the system which is a typical amateur art state, state of the art, to at that time, every city, every area have cultural center to the statistics, the distribution of national art lovers, or amateur artists there are millions of people, so in the cultural revolution, posters, posters, posters, we can see how it at that time the Chinese pop art is released.


    因而美国的波普艺术充其量只是一小撮商人发动的商业艺术,而不是大众意义上的流行艺术,反而在那时的中国,却完成了现代意义上的大众流行艺术,这可以看做是五四新文化运动和传统文化结合的一个遗产之一。

 

    And American pop art, at best, only a handful of businessmen to launch commercial art, rather than the public sense of popular art, but in China at that time, was completed in the modern sense of popular art, it can be seen as the may fourth new culture movement, and combined with a heritage of traditional culture.



    四、水墨实验

    Fourth, ink experiment

 

    1978年的中国改革开放,再次点燃了五四新文化运动以后的和西方现代主义运动的对接,经过十年动乱,中国老百姓刚刚从文化大革命中的集体无意识中苏醒过来,于是西方意义上的人文关怀,及强调个人主义的价值观,成为那一时期个人疗伤的最好武器,对于那一个时代的艺术爱好者和美院的大学生来说,生命的激情是对1949年以后传统美术的一种反叛,包括那时美院的老教授,他们想从政治美术或者社会学美术中逃离出来,走进一种近现代西方意义上的审美,这一度被看成是资产阶级情调,在那样一个和今天相比几乎没有任何娱乐的时代,一个年轻人看电影、搞对象只有五分钱的时代,中国的现代艺术又担负起了一种美的传播的作用,这又类似五四运动拿来主义的时代,只是这一时期美国和日本已经开始了后工业革命。


    China's reform and opening up in 1978, once again ignited after the may fourth new culture movement and docking of western modernist movement, after 10 years of unrest, Chinese people had just recovered from the collective unconscious of the cultural revolution, the western sense of humanistic concern, and emphasizes the values of individualism, become the best weapon of personal healing, the period for the art lovers and academy of an era of university students, the passion of life is a rebellion of traditional fine arts since 1949, including academy was the old professor, they want to escape from the political sociology of art or art, into a modern western sense of aesthetic, it was once seen as the bourgeoisie, in that one and today compared with almost no entertainment era, watching a movie, a young man dating the age of only five cents, up to the task of China's modern art and the spread of a kind of beauty, it is similar to the may fourth movement era, only this time the United States and Japan have begun after the industrial revolution.


    这和二战以前的欧洲艺术和当时中国的现代艺术的产生的背景有很大的不同,美国的流水线艺术经五十年代的波普艺术传播,已成为美国的国粹,并打上了美国制造的标签。在冷战时代结束以前,资本主义的美国制造了冷冰冰的商业艺术、流行艺术,社会主义的中国制造了暖洋洋的政治艺术,流行艺术。


    It and before world war ii European art and the background of China's modern art are quite different, the line art by the '50 s transmission of pop art, has become the essence of the United States and play on the labels of American manufacturing. Before the end of the cold war era, capitalism in the United States made the cold commercial art, popular art, socialist China creates a warm political art, popular art.


    中国的改革开放,再次将大门向世界打开,西方的文学艺术及其价值观,迅速涌入中国,对于1978年以后的这些艺术爱好者和美院大学生来说,西方的现当代艺术是他们朝圣之地,甚至可以为之献身的艺术精神。于是,在整个80年代,中国各地由年轻大学生发起的群众艺术运动,此起彼伏,流派纷呈。


    China's reform and opening up, open the door to the world again, western literature and art and its values, quickly into China, for 1978 years after the art lovers and academy university students, the western modern and contemporary art is a pilgrimage, they can even die for the spirit of art. So, throughout the 80 s, China masses art movement, launched by young students, the school.


    1949年以后建立的新中国艺术样式,再次被抛弃,大家在将西方现代主义搬用的同时,最重要的是也改变了自己的生活方式。透过80年代的那些艺术文献、艺术宣言、艺术作品,我们能切身的感受到,中国的艺术又面临一次巨变, 80年代的中国水墨实验正是在这一背景下发生的。


    Established in 1949 after the art style of the People's Republic of China, is abandoned again, everyone in the western modernism copy at the same time, the most important thing is also changed our way of life. Through the 80 s the declaration of the art, literature, art, works of art, we keenly feel, the art of China faces a big change, in the 80 s China ink experiment is in this background.


    最早只是一种审美的萌芽,后演变成新文人画这样一种提法,再后来是实验水墨,整个这一历程大概历经了十年,新文人画类似美术中的玩世现实主义和艳俗艺术。以朱新建为首的一些艺术家,在80年代中期,他们借用了文人这一概念,并用了一个新字,但他们所倡导的和他们所描绘的图式,却是平民化的,自我嘲讽,自我欣赏,自我调侃,一派玩世倾向,他们笔下的小人物可以看做是对文革中红光亮、高大全人物的一种反动,在整个80年代中国重建精神家园的那样一个时代,这些艺术家显得有些另类,有些小众。


    After the first is a kind of aesthetic of bud and evolved into new literati painting such a formulation, then is experimental ink painting, the whole about this story after ten years, new literati paintings play the realism in the similar art and gaudy art. Some artists, headed by xin-jian zhu in the mid - 80 - s, they borrowed the concept of literati, and a new word, but they advocated and they depict a schema, is common and self-mocking, self appreciation, gain, who play the tendency, they write little can be seen as the red light, all characters in the cultural revolution a reactionary, throughout the 80 s China the reconstruction era as a spiritual home, these artists seem to be some alternative, some niche.


    这一时期浙美的谷文达自己走了一条完全不同的水墨之路,他将禅宗和西方的超现实主义风格结合,形成了自己一套非常风格化的水墨之路。随后中国的水墨实验转向实验水墨,从形式上,他们虽借用了宣纸、水墨等材料但是却有照抄美国抽象主义的嫌疑,直到今天还成为中国水墨界的一个公案。


    Zhejiang beautiful wenda gu yourself during this period take a completely different path of ink painting, he combines zen Buddhism and western surrealism style, formed its own road to a very stylized ink. Then the Chinese ink painting experiment to ink, from the form, they are borrowed from the xuan paper, ink and other materials but is suspected, the copy of the abstract until today has become a set of Chinese ink painting industry.


    以梁铨、张羽、刘子健为代表的实验水墨在精神层面上和美国的抽象表现主义有很大的不同,张羽他们从一开始就区别于美国的冷冰冰的强调工业流水线生产的抽象表现主义艺术,而强调禅宗,强调一种水墨自动状态下的东方精神,这些都是实验水墨在中国走向抽象的一个现实意义,也是90年代实验水墨在整个中国当代艺术中孤军奋战的原因,这是对玩世现实主义的一种反动。


    Represented by Liang Quan, Zhang Yu, zi-jian liu experimental ink on the spiritual level and abstract expressionism in the United States is very different, Zhang Yu they different from the United States from the start of the cold stress industrial assembly line production of abstract expressionist art, and emphasizes the zen, under a state of ink automatic Oriental spirit, these are all experimental ink painting to abstract a realistic significance in China, and experimental ink in the Chinese contemporary art in the 90 s alone, this is a kind of realism in the reactionary.


    五、现代书法

      Five, the modern calligraphy

 

    中国文人画的核心价值是书写,也是书法,世界上还没有哪个民族对文字的崇拜像中国人这样狂热,小到在头发丝上的雕刻经文,大到在山体上制造大地艺术,包括亭台楼阁中的书法牌匾,祭祖祠堂中的排位,包括过年中各家各户门上贴的对联,中国的书法已经完全融入了中国平民百姓日常生活中。


    The core values of Chinese literati painting is writing and calligraphy, no nation in the world like Chinese worship of the text, small to carving scripture in human hair, big enough to produce the art on the mountain, including the calligraphy tablets pavilions, ancestor worship in the ancestral temple of qualifying, including on door families in the New Year couplet, Chinese calligraphy has been fully integrated into the Chinese civilians in daily life.

  

    早在两千年以前,秦始皇登泰山,就让李斯用大篆记载他的这一丰功伟业,中国书法大到祭天祭地,小到酒馆、商业招牌,从来没有离开过中国政治权力的核心及老百姓日常生活的核心,因书法的这种楷模作用和书写文人的政治野心,所以书法远比山水、绘画、更能代表中国古代士大夫精神。


    As early as two thousand years ago, the emperor climb mount tai, let him with minor record the great achievements of lis, Chinese calligraphy to worship offering, small to tavern, business brand, has never left China at the core of political power and the core of the common People's Daily life, the kind of role models for calligraphy and writing scholar's political ambitions, so far compared to the landscape, painting, calligraphy, on behalf of the Chinese ancient Confucian spirit.


    宋以后,苏东坡等书法大家发动的文人画运动,开始直接将书法笔意直接用于绘画,用于山水,用于花卉,用于梅兰竹菊中,中国的书法类似西方的素描,而中国的山水画、花鸟画,都可以看做是书法的一种外延。


    After the song dynasty, su dongpo calligraphy everyone to launch a movement of literati paintings, such as start painting, the calligraphy calligraphic style directly to directly used for landscape, for flower, used in chrysanthemum patterns, similar to the western sketch of Chinese calligraphy, and Chinese landscape painting, flower and-bird painting, can be seen as an extension of calligraphy.


    中国山水画、花鸟画的用笔用线受惠于书法,离开书法,中国传统绘画的写形写意都是一句空谈,可以说中国书法中的用线支撑着有别于欧美光影绘画用面的审美逻辑,并制造了中国独有的线的艺术。20世纪中国书法艺术的变革,同样受到前面提到的五四新文化运动的影响,包括文革中大字报所确立的一种大众书写方式。中国的现代书法它的形成和现代水墨有很相似的背景,都是在80年代那样一场西方意义上的启蒙运动背景下发生的。


    Chinese landscape painting and flower and-bird painting pen thread benefit from calligraphy, left calligraphy, writing form of traditional Chinese painting freehand brushwork is empty talk, can say Chinese calligraphy in the thread holds up is different from the European and American light painting with the aesthetic logic, and creates a unique line of Chinese art. Change of the Chinese calligraphy art in the 20th century, has also been mentioned the influence of the may fourth new culture movement, including posters during the cultural revolution, the establishment of a public way of writing. The formation of China's modern calligraphy it and modern ink painting has a similar background, is in the 80 s as a western sense occurred under the background of the enlightenment.


    由于文人已死,文人体制的消亡,发生在中国80、90年代的现代书法运动,不仅仅只是在风格上受日本现当代书法的影响,也强调了书法的日常性,书法的禅性,书法的涂鸦性,书法的符号性,这方面的代表书法家有魏立刚、邱振中等。在2000年以后,书法也突破了简单意义上的书写,而带有更强的绘画性,书法日益呈现出一种开放状态,书法也开始向图像、向video、向装置、向电子书法扩散,中国现代书法这种临界状态,已经是一个大书法的概念,并将对中国的水墨实验产生越来越深刻的影响。


    Owing to the literati is dead, the demise of the literati system, the 80 s and 90 s in China modern calligraphy movement, not only in style influenced by Japan's modern and contemporary Chinese calligraphy, also emphasized the daily of calligraphy, calligraphy of zen, calligraphy graffiti, symbolic of calligraphy, the this aspect along representative calligrapher is wei li gang, Qiu Zhen medium. After 2000, calligraphy also broke through the simple sense of the writing, and with stronger painting, calligraphy, increasingly presents a state of open, calligraphy also began to image, to video, to the device, the electronic calligraphy diffusion, the critical state of Chinese modern, is already a big calligraphy concept, and will be more and more profound influence on Chinese ink painting experiment.

 

    六、观念水墨

      Six, concepts of ink

 

    观念水墨在中国水墨实验中,完全呈现一种开放状态,它不是一个水墨艺术流派,每一个艺术家都有自己的材料和不同的水墨观点。首先观念水墨在材料上它不再局限于宣纸,像装置、水墨雕塑、照片、计算机绘画、水墨影像、计算机写生等等。

 

    Concept of ink and in Chinese ink painting experiments, present a completely open state, it is not a ink painting genre, each artist has his own materials and different ink. First concept of ink on the material it is no longer limited to the rice paper, like equipment, ink paintings, sculptures, photographs, computer ink video, computer sketch and so on.


    这是一个泛水墨的概念,艺术家不再仅仅局限于水墨圈,很多当代艺术家,像戴光郁、黄岩等直接将水墨转换成装置、转换成图像、转换成行为。观念水墨看重的不是水墨材料本身的一种固守,而是水墨符号的一种外延,所以2000年以后观念水墨,行为艺术的成分越来越重,像张羽的“指印”,大相的票据都越来越有个人化的倾向,并增加了很多禅宗的色彩。  


    This is the concept of a generic ink painting, the artist is no longer just limited to the ink painting circles, many contemporary artists, such as Dai Guangyu, huangyan directly convert ink into devices, converted to images, is transformed into behavior. Value concept and ink is not a stick ink material itself, but a symbol of the ink and wash painting a denotation, since 2000, so the concept of ink painting, performance art of composition is more and more heavy, like Zhang Yu "fingerprint", big phase tends to have a personal notes are more and more, and the colour of zen has increased a lot.


    进入2000年以后,还有符号学水墨、社会学水墨的展览这些口号的提出都从不同的侧面丰富了观念水墨的实验,水墨开始日益和中国的社会发生关系和影像发生关系。社会学水墨的提出和摄影中的平民化影像十分相似,现在很多美院的国画专业的学生,他们将一些波普的因素融入到社会学水墨中,这类似水墨插图,但有很强的后人类倾向和意义。


    Since 2000, the ink, sociology and semiotics ink painting exhibition these slogans are from different sides, the concept of ink experiment ink and China was increasing social relations and image. Sociological of ink painting and photography is very similar to the common image, now a lot of the Chinese painting academy students, they will be some pop factors into sociology ink, the similar ink illustrations, but there is a strong tendency of human after and meaning.


    video和电子技术制造的水墨钟情于传统水墨样式,只是以动态的方式打破了传统水墨绘画的界限,可以从技术层面看做是对传统水墨的一种外延。符号学水墨把传统艺术的一些符号或者图示孤立起来,复制、挪用,带有很强的文化波普色彩。


    Video and electronic technology manufacturing ink painting with a traditional ink painting style, only in the form of dynamic broke the boundary of traditional ink painting, can from the technical level as an extension of traditional ink painting. The traditional art semiotics and ink some symbol or graphic isolated, replicate, divert, pop color with a strong culture.


    从90年代中期到2000年,观念水墨日益显示出整合传统和现当代艺术资源的趋势,水墨艺术界限一次次被打破,有些艺术家也开始和西方的博物馆画廊实现对接,观念水墨在水墨实验中的一个非常重要的一个观点就是他们放弃传统的讨论话题“水墨非水墨”这一怪圈。重要的不是讨论水墨是什么,而是水墨能成为什么。观念水墨在艺术生成上受益于中国作为世界工厂这一大的国际背景。


    Concept from the mid - 90 to 90, ink painting, increasingly shows the trend of integration of traditional and modern and contemporary art resources, ink painting line was broken again and again, some artists began to and implementation of the western museum gallery, concept of ink in ink and experiment of a very important point is that they give up the traditional topic of discussion "ink and wash" this cycle. But what is important is not to discuss ink, ink painting can be. Concept of ink painting in art generated benefit from China as the world's factory this big international background.


    进入2000年以后,中国的观念水墨艺术家开始自信起来,因为伴随着中国经济的腾飞,中国的水墨实验同样也充满自信。美国的流水线艺术,也启发中国制造了798艺术区和宋庄艺术区,这种前店后厂的中国艺术的温州模式,后村落艺术模式,将中国的艺术家推到了职业艺术家层面,观念水墨正是在这一背景下,被看做是水墨艺术的一次积极突围,也将是中国有自主话语权力的热点艺术之一。

 

    Since 2000, the Chinese concept of ink painting artists began to self-confidence, because along with China's economic take-off, Chinese ink painting experiment is also full of confidence. American assembly line art, also has made the 798 art district and inspired China songzhuang art district, the front shop, back factory of wenzhou mode of Chinese art, art mode, village after artist will push Chinese artists to the professional level, the concept of ink it is in this context, was seen as a positive breakthrough, ink painting will also is one of the hot art China has independent discourse power.


 

    七、水墨经典

       Seven, ink and classic


    从在这三十年水墨实验中,与先锋水墨平行发展的是建立在笔会和画院基础之上的更为广泛的水墨运动,这是中国制造,如笔会,他将很多艺术家由一个艺术召集人召集到某一个城市,现场制造水墨,这是一种当代版的水墨表演,虽然它掺杂了很多政治需求和商业因素,但也是一种宋以后文人画在表演形式上的一种推进。

 

    From the ink in the thirty years experiment, and the pioneer ink parallel development is based on pen and academies of broader ink movement, which is made in China, such as pen, he will be a lot of art by a convener summoned to a certain city, on-site manufacturing ink painting, it is a modern version of the ink performance, though it with a lot of political requirements and business factors, but also is a kind of song dynasty literati paintings in a push in the form of the performance.


    和笔会同期派生的是这些艺术家的组织身份的画院系统在中国的各个城市的广泛分布,大到国家画院,小到各个省市的由国家扶持的半官方半民间的画院,再到嫁接在各个协会、各个政府职能部门下的民间画院,可以说将中国水墨界的精英和一般的水墨艺术爱好者都一网打尽。这种有组织的协会式的网状分布使水墨艺术在这三十年没有成为象牙塔,而成为一场广泛的艺术群众运动。由于这个群体人员组成十分复杂,既有来自美院科班出身的精英,也有完全来自社会底层的草莽英雄,因此在水墨风格上就更难归类,不过他们整体上的折中主义态度比实验水墨有过之而无不及,只是在杂交的比例上,他们的水墨风格传统的比例要大一些,也算是水墨界的“三七开”,七分传统、三分现代。但同样大师辈出,因为在传统的山峰和现代的山峰之间有很大的一片沟壑,不论是在山水画、人物画、花鸟画上,这些大师都成了填沟另立奇峰的艺术家,这次邀请参加中国林州水墨双年展的很多国画大师和书法大师都在这三十年完成了个人风格史的一跃,笔墨在这些大师笔下继往开来,既有传统的形式感,又不乏现当代的美学,像这方面代表的艺术家李可染、陆俨少、贾又福、卢禹舜等。


    And pen is derived from the same period of these artists organizational identity system of academies in China's cities extensive distribution, big to the national academies, small to the various provinces and cities by the state shall support the semiofficial half folk art academies, and grafting in every society, folk art academies under the government functional departments, can say will be the elite of Chinese ink painting and general ink art lovers are indiscriminately. Network of distribution type of this kind of organized society make ink painting in the thirty years without the ivory tower, as a broad mass movement of art. Because this group of people is very complex, both from the academy of trained elite, there are totally from the bottom of the rebellious heroes, so in ink painting style is more difficult to classify, but their whole eclectic attitude than experimental ink painting, just on the hybrid ratio, the ratio of their traditional ink painting style to a few bigger, also be ink industry "favour", seven points, three traditional modern. But also the master, because in traditional mountain and modern has a lot to a gap between peaks, whether in landscape painting, figure painting and flower and-bird painting, the master is filling ditch another mountain peaks of the artist, the invited to many of the Chinese ink painting biennale in Lin master of Chinese painting and calligraphy masters are finished personal style in the 30 years history of leap, the pen and ink in the master's in the form of both the traditional sense, there is no lack of again the aesthetics of modern and contemporary, as the representative of artists Li Keran, Liu Yanshao, Jia Youfu, Lu Yushun, etc.


 


    八、后文人

      Eight, after the literati

 

    帝国主义一直相信艺术是进步的,艺术是可以进化的,艺术是可以发展的,艺术是紧跟科学技术的,但美国的后现代主义艺术运动终结于上个世纪70年代末期。70年代以后全球性的美术运动都处于复辟中,美国制造的商业流行艺术在全球大行其道,这就是艺术界的好莱坞版、汽车界的底特律版。


    Imperialism has been believe that art is progressive, art can be evolved, the development of art can be, art is followed by the science and technology, but American postmodernist art movement ended in the 70 s. After 70 s global art movement in the restoration, the manufacture of commercial pop art popular in the world, this is art, shaken the Hollywood version of Detroit.


    中国改革开放的三十年的现当代艺术走了一条完全不同于欧美的博物馆艺术、画廊艺术之路,这些艺术家不论是画水墨还是选择其它艺术媒材,他们都没有走一条基金会之路,这些艺术家制造了笔绘,制造了画院,制造了宋庄,制造了798艺术区,形成了一种中国式的艺术产业集群,这是一种杂交的艺术生产方式,小农经济加后工业管理。同样30年的水墨实验也制造了有别于西方艺术史的职业艺术家,大部分活跃在这三十年中国水墨第一线的水墨艺术家,都日益显现出一种业余状态,也就是恢复了一种传统的文人状态,一种对艺术的把玩状态,一种对生死的把玩状态,这是对“宋”释放的一种文人价值的一种追认。


    China's reform and opening up 30 years of modern and contemporary art took a quite different from European and American art museum, gallery of art, the artist painting ink or choose other art media, they didn't go the way of a foundation, these artists made pen draw, made the art academies, made the songzhuang, made the 798 art district, formed a kind of Chinese art industry cluster, this is the art of a hybrid mode of production, after the small peasant economy and industrial management. Experiment also made the same 30 years is different from the western art history, professional artist, most active in this 30 years the Chinese ink painting the first line of ink painting artists, are increasingly showing a state of amateur, is returned to a state of traditional literati, a state of play for the arts, a state of play of life and death, this is the "song" to release a literary value of a rarity.


    后文人概念的提出,它不是一种创造,只是对这些艺术家工作方式的一种描述,第一届林州水墨双年展学术主题定位为后文人,意义就在于它不仅仅是对中国三十年水墨实验各种流派的一个研究报告。而是在生活方式上、艺术方式上给出一个路径,因为邀请的大部分艺术家都不是西方意义上的职业艺术家,他们从个人的经历上很像传统的文人,有从事编辑工作的,有大学老师,有军官,有政府官员,有职业节目主持人,有作家,有电影明星,这方面的代表艺术家有董浩、张铁林等。


    After the concept of the literati, it is not a kind of creation, is a description of these artists works, the first in Lin academic theme positioning for later literati ink painting biennale, significance is that it is not just for China's 30 years experiment of various genres of a research report. But on the way of life and art in the way given a path, because most of the artists are not invited in the western sense, professional artist, from their personal experience is like the traditional literati, have engaged in editorial work, a university teacher, military officers, government officials, have a professional show host, a writer, a movie star, on behalf of the artist in this area is 8, zhang tielin, etc.


    有的艺术家职业身份更加复杂,水墨和书法不是他们的唯一诉求,而只是他们的一种生活方式,这也很像宋朝,这是一种当代意义上的文人状态、后文人状态,这是中国制造。后文人艺术同样也不是一场中国的水墨艺术运动,他只是一届水墨双年展的一个学术主题,他来自两方面的遗产,一是宋以后中国建立的文人及文人画系统,一是建立在西方工业基础之上的现代城市生活。前者受惠于禅宗,后者受惠于后现代。


    Some artists professional identity is more complex, ink painting and calligraphy is not their only appeal, but they are a way of life, it is also very like the song dynasty, it is a state of the contemporary sense of the literati, after the literati status, it is made in China. After literati art also is not a Chinese ink painting art movement, he is just the ink painting biennale of an academic subject, he comes from two aspects of heritage, one is established in China after the song dynasty literati and literati paintings system, one is based on western industrial modern city life. The former benefit from zen, which benefit from postmodern.


    中国文人的天人合一的思想,在美国“911”之后,在美国发生金融危机之后,成为拯救世界的一副灵丹妙药,艺术和艺术家,水墨和水墨艺术家,在宋以后,从没有像今日中国这样紧密联系在一起,并最终成为中国艺术突围的一种方法论,让我们向三十年为中国水墨实验作出贡献的艺术家致敬。


    Chinese literati of the unity of nature and man thought, "911" in the United States, after, after the financial crisis, as a panacea to save the world, art and artists, ink and ink painting artists, after the song, never like today's China closely together, and eventually become a kind of methodology of Chinese art to break, let us to thirty years contribute to Chinese ink painting experiment of artists.



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